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Before we get started, I made a tool (here’s the source) that runs LDA right inside your browser (it’s pretty neat). Be sure to have that open as I go along. All of the emoji I use come from this page. Just select any one emoji and copy it into the input boxes. If you don’t see the emoji, try using Firefox version 50 or greater.

What is LDA?

LDA or latent Dirichlet allocation is a “generative probabilistic model” of a collection of composites made up of parts. In terms of topic modeling, the composites are documents and the parts are words and/or phrases (n-grams). But you could apply LDA to DNA and nucleotides, pizzas and toppings, molecules and atoms, employees and skills, or keyboards and crumbs.

The probabilistic topic model estimated by LDA consists of two tables (matrices). The first table describes the probability or chance of selecting a particular part when sampling a particular topic (category). The second table describes the chance of selecting a particular topic when sampling a particular document or composite.

                                                                                                                        I suddenly have a taste for bacon avocado toast . 
Take the image up above for example. We have four emoji sequences (the composites) and three types of emoji (the parts). The first three documents have 10 of only one type of emoji while the last document has 10 of each.
X marks the bacon.

After we run our emoji composites through LDA, we end up with the probabilistic topic model you see above. The left table has emoji versus topics and the right table has documents versus topics. Each column in the left table and each row in the right table sums to one (allowing for some truncation and precision loss). So if I were to sample (draw an emoji out of a bag) Topic 0, I’d almost certainly get the avocado emoji. If I sampled Document 3, there’s an equal (uniform) chance I’d get either Topic 0, 1, or 2.

The LDA algorithm assumes your composites were generated like so.

  1. Pick your unique set of parts.
  2. Pick how many composites you want.
  3. Pick how many parts you want per each composite (sample from a Poisson distribution).
  4. Pick how many topics (categories) you want.
  5. Pick a number between not zero and positive infinity and call it alpha.
  6. Pick a number between not zero and positive infinity and call it beta.
  7. Build the parts versus the topics table. For each column, draw a sample (spin the wheel) from a Dirichlet distribution (a distribution of distributions) using beta as the input. Each sample will fill out each column in the table, sum to one, and give the probability of each part per topic (column).
  8. Build the composites versus the topics table. For each row, draw a sample from a Dirichlet distribution using alpha as the input. Each sample will fill out each row in the table, sum to one, and give the probability of each topic (column) per composite.
  9. Build the actual composites. For each composite, 1) look up its row in the composites versus topics table, 2) sample a topic based on the probabilities in the row, 3) go to the parts versus topics table, 4) look up the topic sampled, 5) sample a part based on the probabilities in the column, 6) repeat from step 2 until you’ve reached how many parts this composite was set to have.

Now we know this algorithm (or generative procedure/process) is not how say articles are written but this — for better or worse — is the simplified model LDA assumes.

What is the Dirichlet distribution?

Good ol’ matplotlib.

A bit about the Dirichlet distribution before we move on. What you see up above are iterations of taking 1000 samples from a Dirichlet distribution using an increasing alpha value. The Dirichlet distribution takes a number (called alpha in most places) for each topic (or category). In the GIF and for our purposes, every topic is given the same alpha value you see displayed. Each dot represents some distribution or mixture of the three topics like (1.0, 0.0, 0.0) or (0.4, 0.3, 0.3). Remember that each sample has to add up to one.

At low alpha values (less than one), most of the topic distribution samples are in the corners (near the topics). For really low alpha values, it’s likely you’ll end up sampling (1.0, 0.0, 0.0), (0.0, 1.0, 0.0), or (0.0, 0.0, 1.0). This would mean that a document would only ever have one topic if we were building a three topic probabilistic topic model from scratch.

At alpha equal to one, any space on the surface of the triangle (2-simplex) is fair game (uniformly distributed). You could equally likely end up with a sample favoring only one topic, a sample that gives an even mixture of all the topics, or something in between.

For alpha values greater than one, the samples start to congregate to the center. This means that as alpha gets bigger, your samples will more likely be uniform or an even mixture of all the topics.

The GIF demonstrates the sampling of topic mixtures for the documents but the Dirichlet distribution is also assumed the source (the Bayesian prior) for the mixture of parts per topic. Three topics were used as that works well when plotting in three dimensions but typically one shoots for more than three topics depending on the number of documents they have.

If you look at the tool mentioned earlier, you’ll see an alpha and beta slider. These two hyperparameters are required by LDA. The alpha controls the mixture of topics for any given document. Turn it down and the documents will likely have less of a mixture of topics. Turn it up and the documents will likely have more of a mixture of topics. The beta hyperparameter controls the distribution of words per topic. Turn it down and the topics will likely have less words. Turn it up and the topics will likely have more words.

Ideally we want our composites to be made up of only a few topics and our parts to belong to only some of the topics. With this in mind, alpha and beta are typically set below one.

Why use LDA?

If you view the number of topics as number of clusters and the probabilities as the proportion of cluster membership then using LDA is a way of soft clustering your composites and parts. Contrast this with say k-means where each entity can only belong to one cluster. These fuzzy memberships provide a more nuanced way of recommending similar items, finding duplicates, or discovering user profiles/personas.

You could analyze every GitHub repository’s topics/tags and infer themes like native desktop client, back-end web service, single-paged app, or flappy bird clone.

If you choose the number of topics to be less than the documents, using LDA is a way of reducing the dimensionality (the number of rows and columns) of the original composite versus part data set. With the documents now mapped to a lower dimensional latent/hidden topic/category space, you can now apply other machine learning algorithms which will benefit from the smaller number of dimensions. For example, you could run your documents through LDA and then hard cluster them using DBSCAN.

Of course the main reason you’d use latent Dirichlet allocation is to uncover the themes lurking in your data. By using LDA on pizza orders, you might infer pizza topping themes like spicy, salty, savory, and sweet. You could analyze every GitHub repository’s topics/tags and infer themes like native desktop client, back-end web service, single paged app, or flappy bird clone.

How does latent Dirichlet allocation work?

There are a few ways of implementing LDA. Still, like most — if not all — machine learning algorithms, it comes down to estimating one or more parameters. For LDA those parameters are phi and theta (sometimes they’re called something else). Phi is the parts versus topics matrix (or topics versus parts) and theta is the composites versus topics matrix.

Are you more a cat or dog person?

To learn how it works, I’ll make this easy and step through a concrete example. The documents and emoji are shown in the image above. Our hyperparameters are alpha 0.5, beta 0.01, topics 2, and iterations 1. The following manual run through is based on the paper Probabilistic Topic Models, M Steyvers, T Griffiths, Handbook of latent semantic analysis 427 (7), 424–440.

Instead of estimating phi and theta directly, we will estimate the topic assignments for each of the four emoji using the Gibbs sampling algorithm. Once we have the estimated topic assignments, we can then estimate phi and theta.

To start, we need to randomly assign a topic to each emoji. Using a fair coin (sampling from a uniform distribution), we assign to the first cat Topic 0, the second cat Topic 1, the first dog Topic 1, and the second dog Topic 0.

This is our current topic assignment per each emoji.

This is our current emoji versus topic counts.

This our current document versus topic counts.

Now we need to update the topic assignment for the first cat. We subtract one from the emoji versus topic counts for Cat 0, subtract one from the document versus topic counts for Cat 0, calculate the probability of Topic 0 and 1 for Cat 0, flip a biased coin (sample from a categorical distribution), and then update the assignment and counts.

t0 =
(
(cat emoji with Topic 0 + beta)
/
(emoji with Topic 0 + unique emoji * beta)
)
*
(
(emoji in Document 0 with Topic 0 + alpha)
/
(emoji in Document 0 with a topic + number of topics * alpha)
) =
(
(0 + 0.01)
/
(1 + 2 * 0.01)
)
*
(
(0 + 0.5)
/
(1 + 2 * 0.5)
) = 0.0024509803921568627
t1 = ((1 + 0.01) / (2 + 2 * 0.01)) * ((1 + 0.5) / (1 + 2 * 0.5))
= 0.375
p(Cat 0 = Topic 0 | *) = t0 / (t0 + t1) = 0.006493506493506494
p(Cat 0 = Topic 1 | *) = t1 / (t0 + t1) = 0.9935064935064936

After flipping the biased coin, we surprisingly get the same Topic 0 for Cat 0 so our tables before updating Cat 0 remain the same.

Next we do for Cat 1 what we did for Cat 0. After the flipping the biased coin, we get Topic 0 so now our tables look like so.


This is our current topic assignment per each emoji.

This is our current emoji versus topic counts.

This our current document versus topic counts.

What we did for the two cat emoji we now do for the dog emoji. After flipping the biased coins, we end up assigning Topic 1 to Dog 0 and Topic 1 to Dog 1.

This is our current topic assignment per each emoji.

This is our current emoji versus topic counts.

This our current document versus topic counts.

Since we’ve completed one iteration, we are now done with the Gibbs sampling algorithm and we have our topic assignment estimates.

To estimate phi, we use the following equation for each row-column cell in the emoji versus topic count matrix.

And for estimating theta we use the following equation for each row-column cell in the document versus topic count matrix.

Stylish styling brought to you by Bulma.

At long last we are done. The image above contains the estimated phi and theta parameters of our probabilistic topic model.

If you enjoyed this article you might also like Boost your skills, how to easily write K-Meansk-Nearest Neighbors from Scratch, and Let’s make a Linear Regression Calculator with PureScript.

How have you used LDA? Do you prefer Gensim or MALLET? How cool would it be if Elasticsearch did topic modeling out of the box? Let me know in the responses below. Thanks!

 

 

Article written by : Lettier (source)

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In this tutorial I will showcase the upcoming TensorFlow 2.0 features through the lense of deep reinforcement

learning (DRL) by implementing an advantage actor-critic (A2C) agent to solve the classic CartPole-v0

environment. While the goal is to showcase TensorFlow 2.0, I will do my best to make the DRL aspect

approachable as well, including a brief overview of the field.

In fact since the main focus of the 2.0 release is making developers’ lives easier, it’s a great time to get into DRL

with TensorFlow - our full agent source is under 150 lines! Code is available as a notebook here and online on

Google Colab here.

 

Setup

As TensorFlow 2.0 is still in experimental stage, I recommend installing it in a separate (virtual) environment. I

prefer Anaconda, so I’ll illustrate with it:

> conda create -n tf2 python=3.6
> source activate tf2
> pip install tf-nightly-2.0-preview # tf-nightly-gpu-2.0-preview for GPU version

Let’s quickly verify that everything works as expected:

>>> import tensorflow as tf
>>> print(tf.__version__)
1.13.0-dev20190117
>>> print(tf.executing_eagerly())
True

Don’t worry about the 1.13.x version, just means that it’s an early preview. What’s important to note here is that

we’re in eager mode by default!

>>> print(tf.reduce_sum([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]))
tf.Tensor(15, shape=(), dtype=int32)

If you’re not yet familiar with eager mode, then in essence it means that computation is executed at runtime,

rather than through a pre-compiled graph. You can find a good overview in the TensorFlow documentation.

 

Deep Reinforcement Learning

Generally speaking, reinforcement learning is a high level framework for solving sequential decision making

problems. A RL agent navigates an environmentby taking actions based on some observations,

receiving rewards as a result. Most RL algorithms work by maximizing sum of rewards an agent collects in

trajectory, e.g. during one in-game round.

The output of an RL based algorithm is typically a policy - a function that maps states to actions. A valid

policy can be as simple as a hard-coded no-op action. Stochastic policy is represented as a conditional probability

distribution of actions, given some state.

 

Actor-Critic Methods

RL algorithms are often grouped based on the objective function they are optimized with. Value-based methods, such

as DQN, work by reducing the error of the expected state-action values.

Policy Gradients methods directly optimize the policy itself by adjusting its parameters, typically via gradient

descent. Calculating gradients fully is usually intractable, so instead they are often estimated via monte-carlo methods.

The most popular approach is a hybrid of the two: actor-critic methods, where agents policy is optimized

through policy gradients, while value  based method is used as a bootstrap for the expected value estimates.

Deep Actor-Critic Methods

While much of the fundamental RL theory was developed on the tabular cases, modern RL is almost exclusively done

with function approximators, such as artificial neural networks. Specifically, an RL algorithm is considered “deep” if the

policy and value functions are approximated with deep neural networks.

 

(Asynchronous) Advantage Actor-Critic

Over the years, a number of improvements have been added to address sample efficiency and stability of the

learning process.

First, gradients are weighted with returns: discounted future rewards, which somewhat alleviates the credit

assignment problem, and resolves theoretical issues with infinite timesteps.

Second, an advantage function is used instead of raw returns. Advantage is formed as the difference

between returns and some baseline (e.g. state-action estimate) and can be thought of as a measure of how

good a given action is  compared to some average.

Third, an additional entropy maximization term is used in objective function to ensure agent sufficiently

explores various policies. In essence, entropy measures how random a probability distribution is, maximized

with uniform distribution.

Finally, multiple workers are used in parallel to speed up sample gathering while helping decorrelate

them during training.

Incorporating all of these changes with deep neural networks we arrive at the two of the most popular modern

algorithms:

(asynchronous) advantage actor critic, or A3C/A2C for short. The difference between the two is more

technical than theoretical: as the name suggests, it boils down to how the parallel workers estimate their

gradients and propagate them to the model.

 

With this I will wrap up our tour of DRL methods as the focus of the blog post is more on the TensorFlow 2.0 features.

Don’t worry if you’re still unsure about the subject, things should become clearer with code examples. If you want to

learn more then one good resource to get started is Spinning Up in Deep RL.

 

Advantage Actor-Critic with TensorFlow 2.0

Now that we’re more or less on the same page, let’s see what it takes to implement the basis of many modern DRL

algorithms: an actor-critic agent, described in previous section. For simplicity, we won’t implement parallel workers,

though most of the code will have support for it. An interested reader could then use this as an exercise opportunity.

As a testbed we will use the CartPole-v0 environment. Somewhat simplistic, it’s still a great option to get started with. I

always rely on it as a sanity check when implementing RL algorithms.

Policy & Value via Keras Model API

First, let’s create the policy and value estimate NNs under a single model class:

import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
import tensorflow.keras.layers as kl

class ProbabilityDistribution(tf.keras.Model):
    def call(self, logits):
        # sample a random categorical action from given logits
        return tf.squeeze(tf.random.categorical(logits, 1), axis=-1)

class Model(tf.keras.Model):
    def __init__(self, num_actions):
        super().__init__('mlp_policy')
        # no tf.get_variable(), just simple Keras API
        self.hidden1 = kl.Dense(128, activation='relu')
        self.hidden2 = kl.Dense(128, activation='relu')
        self.value = kl.Dense(1, name='value')
        # logits are unnormalized log probabilities
        self.logits = kl.Dense(num_actions, name='policy_logits')
        self.dist = ProbabilityDistribution()

    def call(self, inputs):
        # inputs is a numpy array, convert to Tensor
        x = tf.convert_to_tensor(inputs, dtype=tf.float32)
        # separate hidden layers from the same input tensor
        hidden_logs = self.hidden1(x)
        hidden_vals = self.hidden2(x)
        return self.logits(hidden_logs), self.value(hidden_vals)

    def action_value(self, obs):
        # executes call() under the hood
        logits, value = self.predict(obs)
        action = self.dist.predict(logits)
        # a simpler option, will become clear later why we don't use it
        # action = tf.random.categorical(logits, 1)
        return np.squeeze(action, axis=-1), np.squeeze(value, axis=-1)

And let’s verify the model works as expected:

import gym

env = gym.make('CartPole-v0')
model = Model(num_actions=env.action_space.n)

obs = env.reset()
# no feed_dict or tf.Session() needed at all
action, value = model.action_value(obs[None, :])
print(action, value) # [1] [-0.00145713]

Things to note here:

  • Model layers and execution path are defined separately
  • There is no “input” layer, model will accept raw numpy arrays
  • Two computation paths can be defined in one model via functional API
  • A model can contain helper methods such as action sampling
  • In eager mode everything works from raw numpy arrays

Random Agent

Now we can move on to the fun stuff - the A2CAgent class. First, let’s add a test method that runs through a full

episode and returns sum of rewards.

class A2CAgent:
    def __init__(self, model):
        self.model = model

    def test(self, env, render=True):
        obs, done, ep_reward = env.reset(), False, 0
        while not done:
            action, _ = self.model.action_value(obs[None, :])
            obs, reward, done, _ = env.step(action)
            ep_reward += reward
            if render:
                env.render()
        return ep_reward

Let’s see how much our model scores with randomly initialized weights:

agent = A2CAgent(model)
rewards_sum = agent.test(env)
print("%d out of 200" % rewards_sum) # 18 out of 200

Not even close to optimal, time to get to the training part!

Loss / Objective Function

As I’ve described in the DRL overview section, an agent improves its policy through gradient descent based on some loss (objective) function. In actor-critic we train on three objectives: improving policy with advantage weighted gradients plus entropy maximization, and minizing value estimate errors.

import tensorflow.keras.losses as kls
import tensorflow.keras.optimizers as ko

class A2CAgent:
    def __init__(self, model):
        # hyperparameters for loss terms
        self.params = {'value': 0.5, 'entropy': 0.0001}
        self.model = model
        self.model.compile(
            optimizer=ko.RMSprop(lr=0.0007),
            # define separate losses for policy logits and value estimate
            loss=[self._logits_loss, self._value_loss]
        )

    def test(self, env, render=True):
        # unchanged from previous section
        ...

    def _value_loss(self, returns, value):
        # value loss is typically MSE between value estimates and returns
        return self.params['value']*kls.mean_squared_error(returns, value)

    def _logits_loss(self, acts_and_advs, logits):
        # a trick to input actions and advantages through same API
        actions, advantages = tf.split(acts_and_advs, 2, axis=-1)
        # polymorphic CE loss function that supports sparse and weighted options
        # from_logits argument ensures transformation into normalized probabilities
        cross_entropy = kls.CategoricalCrossentropy(from_logits=True)
        # policy loss is defined by policy gradients, weighted by advantages
        # note: we only calculate the loss on the actions we've actually taken
        # thus under the hood a sparse version of CE loss will be executed
        actions = tf.cast(actions, tf.int32)
        policy_loss = cross_entropy(actions, logits, sample_weight=advantages)
        # entropy loss can be calculated via CE over itself
        entropy_loss = cross_entropy(logits, logits)
        # here signs are flipped because optimizer minimizes
        return policy_loss - self.params['entropy']*entropy_loss

 

And we’re done with the objective functions! Note how compact the code is: there’s almost more comment lines than code itself.

Agent Training Loop

Finally, there’s the train loop itself. It’s relatively long, but fairly straightforward:

collect samples, calculate returns and advantages, and train the model on them.

class A2CAgent:
    def __init__(self, model):
        # hyperparameters for loss terms
        self.params = {'value': 0.5, 'entropy': 0.0001, 'gamma': 0.99}
        # unchanged from previous section
        ...
        
   def train(self, env, batch_sz=32, updates=1000):
        # storage helpers for a single batch of data
        actions = np.empty((batch_sz,), dtype=np.int32)
        rewards, dones, values = np.empty((3, batch_sz))
        observations = np.empty((batch_sz,) + env.observation_space.shape)
        # training loop: collect samples, send to optimizer, repeat updates times
        ep_rews = [0.0]
        next_obs = env.reset()
        for update in range(updates):
            for step in range(batch_sz):
                observations[step] = next_obs.copy()
                actions[step], values[step] = self.model.action_value(next_obs[None, :])
                next_obs, rewards[step], dones[step], _ = env.step(actions[step])

                ep_rews[-1] += rewards[step]
                if dones[step]:
                    ep_rews.append(0.0)
                    next_obs = env.reset()

            _, next_value = self.model.action_value(next_obs[None, :])
            returns, advs = self._returns_advantages(rewards, dones, values, next_value)
            # a trick to input actions and advantages through same API
            acts_and_advs = np.concatenate([actions[:, None], advs[:, None]], axis=-1)
            # performs a full training step on the collected batch
            # note: no need to mess around with gradients, Keras API handles it
            losses = self.model.train_on_batch(observations, [acts_and_advs, returns])
        return ep_rews

    def _returns_advantages(self, rewards, dones, values, next_value):
        # next_value is the bootstrap value estimate of a future state (the critic)
        returns = np.append(np.zeros_like(rewards), next_value, axis=-1)
        # returns are calculated as discounted sum of future rewards
        for t in reversed(range(rewards.shape[0])):
            returns[t] = rewards[t] + self.params['gamma'] * returns[t+1] * (1-dones[t])
        returns = returns[:-1]
        # advantages are returns - baseline, value estimates in our case
        advantages = returns - values
        return returns, advantages

    def test(self, env, render=True):
        # unchanged from previous section
        ...

    def _value_loss(self, returns, value):
        # unchanged from previous section
        ...

    def _logits_loss(self, acts_and_advs, logits):
        # unchanged from previous section
        ...

Training & Results

We’re now all set to train our single-worker A2C agent on CartPole-v0! Training process shouldn’t take

longer than a couple of minutes. After training is complete you should see an agent successfully achieve

 the target 200 out of 200 score.

rewards_history = agent.train(env)
print("Finished training, testing...")
print("%d out of 200" % agent.test(env)) # 200 out of 200

  

In the source code I include some additional helpers that print out running episode rewards and losses, along with

basic plotter for the rewards_history.

Static Computational Graph

With all of this eager mode excitement you might wonder if static graph execution is even possible anymore. Of

course it is! Moreover, it  takes just one additional line to enable it!

with tf.Graph().as_default():
    print(tf.executing_eagerly()) # False

    model = Model(num_actions=env.action_space.n)
    agent = A2CAgent(model)

    rewards_history = agent.train(env)
    print("Finished training, testing...")
    print("%d out of 200" % agent.test(env)) # 200 out of 200

There’s one caveat that during static graph execution we can’t just have Tensors laying around, which is why we needed that trick with

CategoricalDistribution during model definition. In fact, while I was looking for a way to execute in static mode, I discovered one interesting

low level detail about models built through the Keras API…

One More Thing…

Remember when I said TensorFlow runs in eager mode by default, even proving it with a code snippet? Well, I lied!

Kind of.

If you use Keras API to build and manage your models then it will attempt to compile them as static graphs under the

hood. So what you end up getting is the performance of static computational graphs with flexibility of eager

execution.

You can check status of your model via the model.run_eagerly flag. You can also force eager mode by setting

this flag to True, though most of the times you probably don’t need to - if Keras detects that there’s no way around

eager mode, it will back off on its own.

To illustrate that it’s indeed running as a static graph here’s a simple benchmark:

# create a 100000 samples batch
env = gym.make('CartPole-v0')
obs = np.repeat(env.reset()[None, :], 100000, axis=0)

Eager Benchmark

%%time

model = Model(env.action_space.n)
model.run_eagerly = True

print("Eager Execution:  ", tf.executing_eagerly())
print("Eager Keras Model:", model.run_eagerly)

_ = model(obs)

######## Results #######

Eager Execution:   True
Eager Keras Model: True
CPU times: user 639 ms, sys: 736 ms, total: 1.38 s

Static Benchmark

%%time

with tf.Graph().as_default():
    model = Model(env.action_space.n)

    print("Eager Execution:  ", tf.executing_eagerly())
    print("Eager Keras Model:", model.run_eagerly)

    _ = model.predict(obs)

######## Results #######

Eager Execution:   False
Eager Keras Model: False
CPU times: user 793 ms, sys: 79.7 ms, total: 873 ms
 

Default Benchmark

%%time

model = Model(env.action_space.n)

print("Eager Execution:  ", tf.executing_eagerly())
print("Eager Keras Model:", model.run_eagerly)

_ = model.predict(obs)

######## Results #######

Eager Execution:   True
Eager Keras Model: False
CPU times: user 994 ms, sys: 23.1 ms, total: 1.02 s
 

As you can see eager mode is behind static mode, and by default our model was indeed executing statically, more or

less matching explicit  static graph execution.

 

Conclusion

Hopefully this has been an illustrative tour of both DRL and the things to come in TensorFlow 2.0. Note that this is

still just a nightly preview build, not even a release candidate. Everything is subject to change and if there’s something

about TensorFlow you especially dislike (or like :) ) , let the developers know!

A lingering question people might have is if TensorFlow is better than PyTorch? Maybe. Maybe not. Both are great

libraries, so it is hard to say one way or the other. If you’re familiar with PyTorch, you probably noticed that

TensorFlow 2.0 not only caught up, but also avoided some of the PyTorch API pitfalls.

In either case what is clear is that this competition has resulted in a net-positive outcome for both camps and I am

excited to see what will become of the frameworks in the future.

  

 

 

 

 Article écrit par:  Ring Romain ( Source )

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Ethical Data Collection for Financial News

 


From: arbisoft
 

Introduction:

 

According to Kaggle survey of 2017 , Data availability and quality remains among the top barriers for professionals in the field.

 
Kaggle survey results(2017)



This notebook deals with the availability problem, and walks through the steps of scrapping web pages and collecting the data in a responsible and efficient manner.

 

Table of Contents:

 

Ethical Scrapping guidelines:

scrapping the web is a fairly easy and very powerful method, therefore it must be used responsibly, you can find more in the resource section.

  • Transparency: identify your self, and purpose or provide a contact, if the page owner wanted to contact you; this can be easily done in the UserAgent definition.

  • Ownership: the content you are collecting is Not your own, always cite the source or the original author.

  • Overuse: we must request data at a reasonable rate, in order to avoid stressing or crashing the server; you can set a sleep time between requests.

 

Efficient Scrapping guidelines:

  • Identify what your looking for: web pages can sometimes be overcharged with informations, or presented in less optimal layout, so always locate precisely the path for accessing the data you are collecting

  • DRY (Don't repeat yourself): Scrapping is a repetitive process, so try the style of the code must be adapted, assign each task to a function call for example.

  • Update the code of the scrapper regularly, as websites change their HTML layouts quite often.

  • make as many checks (if statements, assertions, exceptions) to keep track of your scrapper failures, when you are scrapping a large amount of pages.

 

Pre-Code Analysis:

Examining the source:

In this tutorial we will be collecting financial news from the investing blog

OBJECTIF: As a simple Demo, we want to collect the following in formations: the title of the article the source and time of the article the first paragraph In addition we want to do this for all the pages in the category.

 

 
 
Starting page (Simple view)

Examining the HTML:

 


 
Starting page (HTML Inspection)

SO, After inspecting the HTML source, our access path is the following:

    |<div class="largeTitle">                       | The articles List
    |---<article class="articleItem" >              |--- Single article
    |--- ---<a href="/..." class="title">            |--- --- The Article Title
    |--- ---<span class="articleDetails">  <======> |--- --- Source and Time of the Article  
    |--- ---<p>                            <======> |--- --- The First paragraph of the article
    |---<article class="articleItem" >              |--- Next Single article
    |   .......                                     |    ........
    |   .......                                     |    ........
    |<a href="/..." class="pagination">              | Page numbers
 

The Code, Finally! :

Environment and tools:

  • My default environment setup is Python 3.5 kernel in a Jupyter Notebook
  • We will be using: Requests and Beautifullsoup as our scrapping tools:
    • Requests: " allows you to send organic, grass-fed HTTP/1.1 requests, without the need for manual labor. There’s no need to manually add query strings to your URLs, or to form-encode your POST data. Keep-alive and HTTP connection pooling are 100% automatic, thanks to urllib3."
    • Beautifullsoup: "is a Python library for pulling data out of HTML and XML files. It works with your favorite parser to provide idiomatic ways of navigating, searching, and modifying the parse tree. It commonly saves programmers hours or days of work."
 

Imports

In [3]:
import time
import csv
import os.path
import numpy as np 
import pandas as pd 
import requests 
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup 
 

Making a request to a single page:

Our first function would make the HTTP requests to a given URL address, and return the page response or an error depending on the status of the response

In [4]:
def request_with_check(url):
    
    headers = {'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_11_5) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/50.0.2661.102 Safari/537.36 , For: a Tutorial kernel By: elamraoui sohayb'}
    page_response = requests.get(url, headers=headers, timeout=60)
    if page_response.status_code>299:
        raise AssertionError("page content not found, status: %s"%page_response.status_code)
    
    return page_response    
 

Testing:

In [5]:
page_test = request_with_check('https://www.investing.com/news/commodities-news')
page_test.text
Out[5]:
'<!DOCTYPE HTML>\n<html dir="ltr" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" xmlns:schema="http://schema.org/" class="com" lang="en" geo="MA">\n<head>\n    <script>\n        (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i[\'GoogleAnalyticsObject\']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){\n            (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o),\n            m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m)\n        })(window,document,\'script\',\'//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js\',\'ga\');\n    </script>\n\n<link rel="dns-prefetch" href="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net" />\n<link rel="dns-prefetch" href="https://a-invdn-com.akamaized.net" />\n\n<title>Commodities and Futures News - Investing.com</title>\n<link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="RSS" href="https://www.investing.com/rss/news_11.rss" />\n\t<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-gb" href="https://uk.investing.com/news/commodities-news" />\n\t<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-in" href="https://in.investing.com/news/commodities-news" />\n\t<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-ca" href="https://ca.investing.com/news/commodities-news" />\n\t<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-au" href="https://au.investing.com/news/commodities-news" />\n\t<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-za" href="https://za.investing.com/news/commodities-news" />\n\t<link rel="alternate" hreflang="x-default" href="https://www.investing.com/news/commodities-news" />\n\n<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">\n\n<link rel="shortcut icon" href="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/logos/favicon.ico">\n<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">\n<meta http-equiv="content-language" content="en-us">\n<link rel="alternate" media="only screen and (max-width: 640px)" href="https://m.investing.com/news/commodities-news"><meta name="description" content="Investing.com brings you the latest commodity market news and headlines from around the world.">\n<meta 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Stay up-to-date with breaking commodities news and specifics on major commodities such as crude oil and gold.</span>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t\t\t</div>\n\t\t</a>\n\t</div>\n\t<div class="headBtnWrapper float_lang_base_2">\n\t\t\t</div>\n\n\n\n\n\n\n<div class="clear"></div>\n<div class="innerHeaderSeperatorBottom"></div>\n\t\t<!-- Page Content -->\n            <script type="text/javascript">\n                window.siteData = {\n                    htmlDirection: \'ltr\',\n                    decimalPoint: \'.\' || \'.\',\n                    thousandSep: \',\' || \',\',\n                    isEu : false,\n                    userLoggedIn: false,\n                    userHasPhoneRegistered: false,\n                    currencyPosition: \'left\',\n                    datepicker: {\n                        applyButton: \'Apply\',\n                        format: \'m/d/Y\',\n                        formatShort: \'m/d/y\',\n                        formatLong: \'m/d/Y\',\n                        formatSend: \'yy-mm-dd\',\n                        firstDay: \'1\',\n                        dayNames: ["Su","Mo","Tu","We","Th","Fr","Sa"],\n                        monthNamesShort: ["Jan.", "Feb.", "Mar.", "Apr.", "May", "Jun.", "Jul.", "Aug.", "Sep.", "Oct.", "Nov.", "Dec."],\n                        monthNames: ["January", "February", "March", "April", "May", "June", "July", "August", "September", "October", "November", "December"],\n                        translations: {\n                            custom: \'Custom dates\',\n                            start: \'Start Date\',\n                            end: \'End Date\'\n                        }\n                    },\n                    techTranslations: {"_Currencies_Strong_Buy":"Strong Buy","_Currencies_Strong_Sell":"Strong Sell","_specialBuy":"BUY","_specialSell":"Sell","_moving_avarge_tool_sell":"Sell","_moving_avarge_tool_buy":"Buy","_Currencies_Neutral":"Neutral","_not_available":"Not available","_Currencies_Less_Volatility":"Less Volatility","_Currencies_More_Volatility":"High Volatility","_Currencies_Overbought":"Overbought","_Currencies_Oversold":"Oversold"},\n                    edition: $(\'html\').attr(\'lang\')\n                };\n                \n                (function (pattern) {\n                    window.siteData.elapsedTimePattern = pattern.is(\'false\') ? null : $.extend(JSON.parse(pattern), { justNow: \'Just Now\' });\n                })(\'{"minutes":{"X minute ago":[1],"X minutes ago":["2-59"]},"hours":{"X hour ago":[1],"X hours ago":["2-24"]}}\');\n\n                                window.siteData.smlID = 11;\n                                                window.siteData.mmID = 2;\n                \n                window.truncatedCommentShowMoreDefine = \'Show more\';\n            </script>\n            <div class="largeTitle">\n\t<article class="articleItem   "  data-id="1669450" >\n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/democrats-regaining-house-seen-raising-odds-of-antiopec-bill-1669450" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/external-images-thumbnails/pic26e62ba103af8ca0a04e6da1e9011cc7.jpg" alt="Democrats Regaining House Seen Raising Odds of Anti-OPEC Bill" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\';" ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/democrats-regaining-house-seen-raising-odds-of-antiopec-bill-1669450" title="Democrats Regaining House Seen Raising Odds of Anti-OPEC Bill" class="title" >Democrats Regaining House Seen Raising Odds of Anti-OPEC Bill</a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By Bloomberg</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;1 hour ago</span></span>        \t\t<p>(Bloomberg) -- If the Democrats take over the U.S. House of Representatives in next week&rsquo;s midterm elections, it could renew momentum in favor of legislation targeting...</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem   "  data-id="1669221" >\n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/gold-prices-advance-as-dollar-softens-1669221" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEA8G03Y_S.jpg" alt="Gold Prices Advance as Dollar Softens " onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\';" ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/gold-prices-advance-as-dollar-softens-1669221" title="Gold Prices Advance as Dollar Softens " class="title" >Gold Prices Advance as Dollar Softens </a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By Investing.com</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;5 hours ago</span>\t \n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/gold-prices-advance-as-dollar-softens-1669221#comments" class="js-scrollto-comment commentsBubbleCnt" ><i class="commentIcon"></i>1</a>\n\n</span>        \t\t<p>Investing.com - Gold prices advanced on Thursday as the dollar weakened after flirting with 10-week highs in the previous session on the bullish private jobs report.\r\nGold futures...</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem   "  data-id="1669105" >\n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/oil-prices-fall-on-signs-of-rising-supplies-ebbing-confidence-on-global-economy-1669105" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/external-images-thumbnails/LYNXNPEEA023L.jpg" alt="Oil slips on signs of rising supplies, economic slowdown jitters" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\';" ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/oil-prices-fall-on-signs-of-rising-supplies-ebbing-confidence-on-global-economy-1669105" title="Oil slips on signs of rising supplies, economic slowdown jitters" class="title" >Oil slips on signs of rising supplies, economic slowdown jitters</a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By Reuters</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;5 hours ago</span></span>        \t\t<p> BEIJING (Reuters) - Oil prices fell on Thursday, extending losses in previous sessions, amid signs of rising supply and growing concerns that demand might weaken on the prospect...</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem sponsoredArticle  " >\n\t<a href="/jp.php?v2=YCAybGA3MGk2ZDo3NWZlYT9nNGpibDEwNCNmNGFrZSw3cWFoYDhkImNrYX8ybmY8YhE3aGJqNiBgNjNhYyI3dGAnMmxgMjBpNmU6NjVwZSQ_YzRuYmQxJTR1Zmg=" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/2147849475_S.jpg"   ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t<span class="sponsoredBadge arial_11" data-sponsored="Sponsored"></span>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/jp.php?v2=YCAybGA3MGk2ZDo3NWZlYT9nNGpibDEwNCNmNGFrZSw3cWFoYDhkImNrYX8ybmY8YhE3aGJqNiBgNjNhYyI3dGAnMmxgMjBpNmU6NjVwZSQ_YzRuYmQxJTR1Zmg=" title="ORBISE Enters New Markets with CoinDeal Listing" class="title" >ORBISE Enters New Markets with CoinDeal Listing</a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By <a  href="/education-providers/investing.com-studios">Investing.com Studios</a></span></span>        \t\t<p>OU ORBISE Corp. (“ORBISE”) is celebrating its first milestone on the way to reinventing the global cryptocurrency financial system by listing the ORBT token on the CoinDeal exchange platform.</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1669553" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/920lq" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1669553, \'news\', \'Marketpulse\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/indicatornews_2_150x108_S_1416306967.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Brexit breakthrough hopes lift sterling" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/920lq" title="Brexit breakthrough hopes lift sterling" onclick="hit_news_item(1669553, \'news\', \'Marketpulse\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Brexit breakthrough hopes lift sterling</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By Marketpulse</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;39 minutes ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Wednesday October 31: Five things the markets are talking about October was the worst month in six-years for global equities, and despite a 48-hour reprieve on the final...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1669476" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91-qa" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1669476, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/indicatornews_5_150x108_S_1416303181.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="WTI: Recovery remains capped near $ 65 amid rising US supplies" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91-qa" title="WTI: Recovery remains capped near $ 65 amid rising US supplies" onclick="hit_news_item(1669476, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">WTI: Recovery remains capped near $ 65 amid rising US supplies</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By FXStreet</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;1 hour ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Global growth concerns and rising supply weigh down on the prices.\n\tRisks remain to the downside, $ 64.50 is the key level to beat for the bears.\n\n\nWTI (oil futures on NYMEX) makes...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem dfp-native">\n    <div id="div-gpt-ad-1513094451186-0" data-slot-id="/6938/FP_EN_site/FP_EN_Native_Content_1" style="text-align:center;"></div>\n    <div>\n        <script> $.initSlot("/6938/FP_EN_site/FP_EN_Native_Content_1", "div-gpt-ad-1513094451186-0"); </script>    </div>\n</article><article class="articleItem   "  data-id="1669170" >\n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/oil-prices-slip-amidst-us-stock-build-1669170" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEA601BL_S.jpg" alt="Oil Prices Slip Amidst U.S. Stock Build " onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\';" ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/oil-prices-slip-amidst-us-stock-build-1669170" title="Oil Prices Slip Amidst U.S. Stock Build " class="title" >Oil Prices Slip Amidst U.S. Stock Build </a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By Investing.com</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;6 hours ago</span></span>        \t\t<p>Investing.com - Oil prices edged down on Thursday morning in Asia, as U.S. crude inventories surged for the sixth straight week. OPEC also boosted oil production in October to its...</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1669423" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91zf-" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1669423, \'news\', \'Greenbiz\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/indicatornews_4_150x108_S_1416306970.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Energy transitions are nothing new, but the one underway is unprecedented and urgent" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91zf-" title="Energy transitions are nothing new, but the one underway is unprecedented and urgent" onclick="hit_news_item(1669423, \'news\', \'Greenbiz\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Energy transitions are nothing new, but the one underway is unprecedented and urgent</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By Greenbiz</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;3 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Being on the powerful side of history matters.</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem dfp-native">\n    <div id="div-gpt-ad-1513094475409-0" data-slot-id="/6938/FP_EN_site/FP_EN_Native_Content_2" style="text-align:center;"></div>\n    <div>\n        <script> $.initSlot("/6938/FP_EN_site/FP_EN_Native_Content_2", "div-gpt-ad-1513094475409-0"); </script>    </div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1669242" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91xm-" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1669242, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXNPEB8N174_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Gold: Indian festive buying seen subdued amid higher prices - WGC" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91xm-" title="Gold: Indian festive buying seen subdued amid higher prices - WGC" onclick="hit_news_item(1669242, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Gold: Indian festive buying seen subdued amid higher prices - WGC</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By FXStreet</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;4 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Somasundaram PR, Managing Director of the World Gold Council&rsquo;s (WGC) Indian operations, told Reuters on Thursday, that the demand for gold from India is likely to reduce from...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1669220" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91x7g" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1669220, \'news\', \'Dailyfx\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXNPEC920S1_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Gold Prices May Keep Falling as ISM Data Lifts Fed Rate Hike Bets" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91x7g" title="Gold Prices May Keep Falling as ISM Data Lifts Fed Rate Hike Bets" onclick="hit_news_item(1669220, \'news\', \'Dailyfx\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Gold Prices May Keep Falling as ISM Data Lifts Fed Rate Hike Bets</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By Dailyfx</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;5 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Gold prices may continue to fall as October&rsquo;s US manufacturing ISM survey boosts Fed rate hike bets. Crude oil prices may enjoy a respite after recent selling.</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1669192" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91wqv" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1669192, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEA6604O_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Goldman Sachs reiterates year-end Brent oil price forecast of $80 per barrel - Reuters" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91wqv" title="Goldman Sachs reiterates year-end Brent oil price forecast of $80 per barrel - Reuters" onclick="hit_news_item(1669192, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Goldman Sachs reiterates year-end Brent oil price forecast of $80 per barrel - Reuters</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By FXStreet</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;6 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Investment bank Goldman Sachs has reiterated it&#39;s Brent oil year-end price target of $80 per barrel, citing short-term upside risks from the reintroduction of Iran sanctions...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1669172" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91wf7" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1669172, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEB4I0Z8_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Oil continues two-fold decline, WTI testing $65.00" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91wf7" title="Oil continues two-fold decline, WTI testing $65.00" onclick="hit_news_item(1669172, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Oil continues two-fold decline, WTI testing $65.00</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By FXStreet</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;6 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Oil markets are extending their slide as hopes for continued US oversupply run up against broader risk-off sentiment.\n\tUS crude oil is testing into quarterly lows as traders fall...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1669177" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91wfd" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1669177, \'news\', \'Fortune\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/indicatornews_6_150x108_S_1416306972.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Holiday Gift Guide 2018: Luxury Lifestyle" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91wfd" title="Holiday Gift Guide 2018: Luxury Lifestyle" onclick="hit_news_item(1669177, \'news\', \'Fortune\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Holiday Gift Guide 2018: Luxury Lifestyle</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By Fortune</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;6 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>For the friend who needs a plush leather couch with USB ports.</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem   "  data-id="1668966" >\n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/trump-says-oil-supply-elsewhere-sufficient-to-allow-cut-in-iran-purchases-1668966" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/external-images-thumbnails/LYNXNPEE9U1WK.jpg" alt="Trump says oil supply elsewhere sufficient to allow cut in Iran purchases" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\';" ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/trump-says-oil-supply-elsewhere-sufficient-to-allow-cut-in-iran-purchases-1668966" title="Trump says oil supply elsewhere sufficient to allow cut in Iran purchases" class="title" >Trump says oil supply elsewhere sufficient to allow cut in Iran purchases</a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By Reuters</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;12 hours ago</span></span>        \t\t<p> WASHINGTON (Reuters) - U.S. President Donald Trump said on Wednesday in a presidential memorandum that he had determined there was sufficient supply of petroleum and petroleum...</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem   "  data-id="1668281" >\n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/oil-selloff-pauses-on-weekly-data-big-losses-still-for-oct-1668281" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEB4H060_S.jpg" alt="Oil Down 11% In October, Biggest Loss in Over 2 Years" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\';" ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/oil-selloff-pauses-on-weekly-data-big-losses-still-for-oct-1668281" title="Oil Down 11% In October, Biggest Loss in Over 2 Years" class="title" >Oil Down 11% In October, Biggest Loss in Over 2 Years</a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By Investing.com</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;15 hours ago</span></span>        \t\t<p>Investing.com - Oil prices in October posted their biggest monthly loss in nearly 2-1/2 years as investors shrugged off supportive U.S. supply-demand data and looming sanctions on...</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem   "  data-id="1668509" >\n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/gold-end-october-up-2-biggest-gain-since-january-1668509" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXNPEB880JW_S.jpg" alt="Gold Limps to a 2% October Gain, Still Largest Since January" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\';" ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/gold-end-october-up-2-biggest-gain-since-january-1668509" title="Gold Limps to a 2% October Gain, Still Largest Since January" class="title" >Gold Limps to a 2% October Gain, Still Largest Since January</a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By Investing.com</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;15 hours ago</span></span>        \t\t<p>Investing.com - More profit-taking on gold&rsquo;s run this month left the yellow metal with a smaller 2% gain as it closed October trading on Wednesday, with analysts saying the...</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1669012" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91u2c" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1669012, \'news\', \'Fortune\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/indicatornews_2_150x108_S_1416306967.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Washington State Teachers Are Learning to Disarm Shooters With Aluminum Tee-Ball Bats" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91u2c" title="Washington State Teachers Are Learning to Disarm Shooters With Aluminum Tee-Ball Bats" onclick="hit_news_item(1669012, \'news\', \'Fortune\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Washington State Teachers Are Learning to Disarm Shooters With Aluminum Tee-Ball Bats</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By Fortune</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;11 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Similar training worked to thwart an attack at a neighboring school.</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1669022" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91u5k" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1669022, \'news\', \'Dailyfx\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXNPEC2U0WF_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Crude Oil Price Falls on Record US Output, Trade Data May Hurt AUD" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91u5k" title="Crude Oil Price Falls on Record US Output, Trade Data May Hurt AUD" onclick="hit_news_item(1669022, \'news\', \'Dailyfx\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Crude Oil Price Falls on Record US Output, Trade Data May Hurt AUD</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By Dailyfx</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;11 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>The British Pound rose on Brexit deal hopes while oil prices fell on record US crude output data as stocks and FX diverged. Australian Dollar may fall on a weaker trade surplus.</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668980" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91tk3" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668980, \'news\', \'FXEmpire\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEA5O0QF_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Crude Oil Price Update &#8211; Market Testing Major Retracement Zone at $65.45 to $62.79 but No Sign of Bottoming" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91tk3" title="Crude Oil Price Update &#8211; Market Testing Major Retracement Zone at $65.45 to $62.79 but No Sign of Bottoming" onclick="hit_news_item(1668980, \'news\', \'FXEmpire\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Crude Oil Price Update &#8211; Market Testing Major Retracement Zone at $65.45 to $62.79 but No Sign of Bottoming</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By FXEmpire</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;12 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Based on Wednesday’s price action, the direction of the December WTI crude oil futures contract on Thursday is likely to be determined by trader reaction to the main 50% level at...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem   "  data-id="1668306" >\n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/us-passes-russia--briefly--to-become-top-oil-producer-1668306" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXNPEAAN05K_S.jpg" alt="U.S. Passes Russia -- Briefly -- to Become Top Oil Producer" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\';" ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/us-passes-russia--briefly--to-become-top-oil-producer-1668306" title="U.S. Passes Russia -- Briefly -- to Become Top Oil Producer" class="title" >U.S. Passes Russia -- Briefly -- to Become Top Oil Producer</a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By Bloomberg</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;17 hours ago</span></span>        \t\t<p>(Bloomberg) -- The U.S. surpassed Russia in August to claim the title of world&rsquo;s top oil producer, with the largest year-on-year output increase in U.S. history.\r\nOutput rose...</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668894" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91suz" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668894, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/indicatornews_6_150x108_S_1416306972.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Key event risks - Westpac" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91suz" title="Key event risks - Westpac" onclick="hit_news_item(1668894, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Key event risks - Westpac</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By FXStreet</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;13 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Analysts at Westpac offered their outlook for key events coming up.\n\nKey Quotes:\n\n"Oct Australia home price data from CoreLogic (10am Syd) should not surprise because updates are...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668718" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91rn4" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668718, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEA7P09F_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Crude Oil WTI Technical Analysis: Black Gold dropping like a stone at its lowest since August as WTI hits $65.00 a barrel" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91rn4" title="Crude Oil WTI Technical Analysis: Black Gold dropping like a stone at its lowest since August as WTI hits $65.00 a barrel" onclick="hit_news_item(1668718, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Crude Oil WTI Technical Analysis: Black Gold dropping like a stone at its lowest since August as WTI hits $65.00 a barrel</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By FXStreet</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;14 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Crude oil is trading in a bear trend below the 200-period simple moving average on the 4-hour chart as the market is reaching levels not seen since mid-August.\n\tCrude oil broke...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem   "  data-id="1668018" >\n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/opec-oil-output-rises-to-highest-since-2016-despite-iran-reuters-survey-1668018" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXNPEE4G1TT_S.jpg" alt="OPEC oil output rises to highest since 2016 despite Iran: Reuters survey" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\';" ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/opec-oil-output-rises-to-highest-since-2016-despite-iran-reuters-survey-1668018" title="OPEC oil output rises to highest since 2016 despite Iran: Reuters survey" class="title" >OPEC oil output rises to highest since 2016 despite Iran: Reuters survey</a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By Reuters</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;20 hours ago</span></span>        \t\t<p> By Alex Lawler LONDON (Reuters) - OPEC has boosted oil production in October to the highest since 2016, a Reuters survey found, as higher output led by the United Arab Emirates...</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668604" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91q-9" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668604, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/indicatornews_2_150x108_S_1416306967.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="WTI extends slide to the $65.00 area, lowest since mid-August" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91q-9" title="WTI extends slide to the $65.00 area, lowest since mid-August" onclick="hit_news_item(1668604, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">WTI extends slide to the $65.00 area, lowest since mid-August</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By FXStreet</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;15 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Crude oil prices drop for the third-day in-a-row, now looking at August lows. \n\tStronger US dollar and demand concerns pushed oil further lower. \n\n\nWTI (oil futures on NYMEX)...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem   "  data-id="1667980" >\n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/us-crude-oil-inventories-rose-by-322m-barrels-last-week-eia-1667980" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEBBT0BW_S.jpg" alt="U.S. Crude Oil Inventories Rose by 3.22M Barrels Last Week: EIA" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\';" ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/us-crude-oil-inventories-rose-by-322m-barrels-last-week-eia-1667980" title="U.S. Crude Oil Inventories Rose by 3.22M Barrels Last Week: EIA" class="title" >U.S. Crude Oil Inventories Rose by 3.22M Barrels Last Week: EIA</a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By Investing.com</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;20 hours ago</span></span>        \t\t<p>Investing.com - U.S. crude oil inventories rose less than expected last week, the Energy Information Administration said in its weekly report on Wednesday.\r\nThe EIA data showed...</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668498" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91pvb" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668498, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXNPEC0O0JM_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Gold falls again, moves further away from monthly highs" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91pvb" title="Gold falls again, moves further away from monthly highs" onclick="hit_news_item(1668498, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Gold falls again, moves further away from monthly highs</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By FXStreet</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;16 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Gold&rsquo;s correction from above $1,240/oz continued on Wednesday amid a stronger US dollar and higher Treasury yields. \n\tPrice fell below key support levels, weakening further...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668485" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91poe" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668485, \'news\', \'Fool\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/STOCK-EXCHANGE-RUSSIAN-TRADING-SYSTEMS_150x108_S_1416303640.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Enterprise Products Partners Raises Guidance for 2018 (Again)" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91poe" title="Enterprise Products Partners Raises Guidance for 2018 (Again)" onclick="hit_news_item(1668485, \'news\', \'Fool\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Enterprise Products Partners Raises Guidance for 2018 (Again)</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By Fool</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;16 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Management keeps finding new projects to invest in and raising its capital spending guidance for the year.</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668496" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91psq" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668496, \'news\', \'Forexlive\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXNPEC490GY_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Colombia plans to hedge its oil exports" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91psq" title="Colombia plans to hedge its oil exports" onclick="hit_news_item(1668496, \'news\', \'Forexlive\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Colombia plans to hedge its oil exports</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By Forexlive</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;16 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Congressional bill will allow them to use derivatives\nMexico hedges its production each year and now Colombia is looking to do the same.\nIn general, hedging is always done at the...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668458" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91pid" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668458, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEDAD000_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="USD/CAD touches new 7-week highs above 1.3160 as oil sell-off continues" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91pid" title="USD/CAD touches new 7-week highs above 1.3160 as oil sell-off continues" onclick="hit_news_item(1668458, \'news\', \'FXStreet\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">USD/CAD touches new 7-week highs above 1.3160 as oil sell-off continues</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By FXStreet</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;16 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>WTI extends a slide in the NA session.\n\tUS Dollar Index stays near 16-month highs above 97.\n\tCanadian economy expands 0.1% in August.\n\n\nAfter edging down to the 1.31 area with the...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668454" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91pfr" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668454, \'news\', \'Forexlive\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEE5R1AR-ORUBS_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="US plans sanctions on Venezuela\'s gold exports" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91pfr" title="US plans sanctions on Venezuela\'s gold exports" onclick="hit_news_item(1668454, \'news\', \'Forexlive\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">US plans sanctions on Venezuela\'s gold exports</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By Forexlive</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;16 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>You can\'t stop trade in gold\nThe  that the US plans sanctions on Venezuela\'s gold exports.\nWSJ reports\nThe US says it\'s trying to stop Maduro from looting the nation\'s riches. Most...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668544" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91q9l" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668544, \'news\', \'MarketWatch\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEDAD000_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="U.S. oil benchmark falls for the session, loses nearly 11% for the month" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91q9l" title="U.S. oil benchmark falls for the session, loses nearly 11% for the month" onclick="hit_news_item(1668544, \'news\', \'MarketWatch\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">U.S. oil benchmark falls for the session, loses nearly 11% for the month</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By MarketWatch</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;16 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>U.S. oil futures settled with a loss on Wednesday, pressured by ongoing concerns over a potential slowdown in energy demand, as well as U.S. government data that revealed a sixth...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668441" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91paq" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668441, \'news\', \'FXEmpire\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXMPEE7813I_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Natural Gas Price Prediction &#8211; Prices Rise to Resistance Ahead of Inventory Report" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91paq" title="Natural Gas Price Prediction &#8211; Prices Rise to Resistance Ahead of Inventory Report" onclick="hit_news_item(1668441, \'news\', \'FXEmpire\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Natural Gas Price Prediction &#8211; Prices Rise to Resistance Ahead of Inventory Report</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By FXEmpire</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;16 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Natural gas prices moved higher on Wednesday ahead of Thursday inventory report from the Department of Energy. Prices surged more than 2%, and are testing</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668340" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91och" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668340, \'news\', \'Fool\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/indicatornews_2_150x108_S_1416306967.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="3 High-Yield Stocks at Rock-Bottom Prices" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91och" title="3 High-Yield Stocks at Rock-Bottom Prices" onclick="hit_news_item(1668340, \'news\', \'Fool\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">3 High-Yield Stocks at Rock-Bottom Prices</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By Fool</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;17 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>These top high-yield dividend stocks look too cheap to pass up now.</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668315" >\n\t\t<a href="http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/ValueWalkFeed/~3/7fPRNk2HGP8/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668315, \'news\', \'ValueWalk\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/STOCK-EXCHANGE-RUSSIAN-TRADING-SYSTEMS_150x108_S_1416303640.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Erdogan Allows Crossing Turkey’s Border To Join ISIS In Syria And Iraq" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/ValueWalkFeed/~3/7fPRNk2HGP8/" title="Erdogan Allows Crossing Turkey’s Border To Join ISIS In Syria And Iraq" onclick="hit_news_item(1668315, \'news\', \'ValueWalk\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Erdogan Allows Crossing Turkey’s Border To Join ISIS In Syria And Iraq</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By ValueWalk</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;17 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Last week I conducted a panel discussion about Turkey under the leadership of Erdogan. The day before the event, we were alerted that several of Erdogan’s stooges will await us to...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem"  data-id="1668401" >\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91ox9" rel="nofollow" target="_blank" class="img" onclick="hit_news_item(1668401, \'news\', \'MarketWatch\')"><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/LYNXNPEC3L0HO_S.jpg" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\'" alt="Gold ends at three-week low as global stocks surge, but bullion logs strong October rise" /></a>\n\t\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t<a href="https://invst.ly/91ox9" title="Gold ends at three-week low as global stocks surge, but bullion logs strong October rise" onclick="hit_news_item(1668401, \'news\', \'MarketWatch\')" class="title" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Gold ends at three-week low as global stocks surge, but bullion logs strong October rise</a>\n\t\t<div class="articleDetails"><span>By MarketWatch</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;18 hours ago</span></div>\n\t\t\t\t<p>Gold prices ended firmly lower Wednesday, on the back of a stronger dollar and a bounce for beaten-down equities, but month-to-date losses for benchmark U.S. stock indexes have...</p>\n\t\t\t\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article><article class="articleItem   "  data-id="1667454" >\n\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/iran-sanctions-seen-keeping-oil-above-75-but-2019-demand-outlook-darkens-1667454" class="img" ><img src="https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/external-images-thumbnails/LYNXNPEE9U0U9.jpg" alt="Iran sanctions seen keeping oil above $75, but 2019 demand outlook darkens" onerror="javascript:this.src=\'https://i-invdn-com.akamaized.net/news/news-paper_108x81.png\';" ></a>\t<div class="textDiv">\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<a href="/news/commodities-news/iran-sanctions-seen-keeping-oil-above-75-but-2019-demand-outlook-darkens-1667454" title="Iran sanctions seen keeping oil above $75, but 2019 demand outlook darkens" class="title" >Iran sanctions seen keeping oil above $75, but 2019 demand outlook darkens</a>\n\t        <span class="articleDetails"><span>By Reuters</span><span class="date">&nbsp;-&nbsp;23 hours ago</span></span>        \t\t<p> By Eileen Soreng (Reuters) - Oil is likely to stay above $75 a barrel, fueled by supply disruptions exacerbated by U.S. sanctions on Iran, but further gains could be limited as...</p>\t</div>\n\t<div class="clear"></div>\n</article></div>\n<div id="paginationWrap" class="arial_12 js-pagination-wrapper"><div class="sideDiv inlineblock text_align_lang_base_1">&nbsp;</div><div class="midDiv inlineblock"><a href="javascript:void();" class="pagination selected">1</a><a href="/news/commodities-news/2" title="Show results 36 to 52 of 26414" class="pagination">2</a><a href="/news/commodities-news/3" title="Show results 53 to 69 of 26414" class="pagination">3</a><a href="/news/commodities-news/4" title="Show 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chart_link="/indices/us-spx-500-futures-streaming-chart" data-chart-hash="1a5f95b308e1d982eec66b97f9895bac"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/indices/us-spx-500-futures" title="S&P 500 Futures (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_indices-us-spx-500-futures\' >S&P 500 Futures</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-8839-last" id="sb_last_8839">2,725.75</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-8839-pc" id="sb_change_8839">+14.75</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-8839-pcp" id="sb_changepc_8839">+0.54%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenPair-8839" id="sb_clock_8839"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="166" data-pair_id="166" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/indices/us-spx-500-chart" id="sb_pair_166" chart_link="/indices/us-spx-500-chart" data-chart-hash="fcb55c965d22c2a1f1ba4ce2788c1de1"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/indices/us-spx-500" title="S&P 500 (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_indices-us-spx-500\' >S&P 500</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-166-last" id="sb_last_166">2,711.74</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-166-pc" id="sb_change_166">+29.11</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-166-pcp" id="sb_changepc_166">+1.09%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-1" id="sb_clock_166"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="20" data-pair_id="20" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/indices/nq-100-chart" id="sb_pair_20" chart_link="/indices/nq-100-chart" data-chart-hash="ffeb3ee5d97b93b3795cfcee48711ae6"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/indices/nq-100" title="Nasdaq 100"  data-gae=\'sb_indices-nq-100\' >Nasdaq 100</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-20-last" id="sb_last_20">6,967.10</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-20-pc" id="sb_change_20">+156.97</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-20-pcp" id="sb_changepc_20">+2.31%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-2" id="sb_clock_20"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="169" data-pair_id="169" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/indices/us-30-chart" id="sb_pair_169" chart_link="/indices/us-30-chart" data-chart-hash="d5f35207ae3dfc721a517a541dbba7d8"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/indices/us-30" title="Dow Jones Industrial Average"  data-gae=\'sb_indices-us-30\' >Dow 30</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-169-last" id="sb_last_169">25,115.76</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-169-pc" id="sb_change_169">+241.12</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-169-pcp" id="sb_changepc_169">+0.97%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-1" id="sb_clock_169"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="170" data-pair_id="170" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/indices/smallcap-2000-chart" id="sb_pair_170" chart_link="/indices/smallcap-2000-chart" data-chart-hash="578c1e972a0f03222cbc1769a7cd9f69"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/indices/smallcap-2000" title="US SmallCap 2000 (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_indices-smallcap-2000\' >SmallCap 2000</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-170-last" id="sb_last_170">1,511.41</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-170-pc" id="sb_change_170">+4.63</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-170-pcp" id="sb_changepc_170">+0.31%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-13" id="sb_clock_170"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="44336" data-pair_id="44336" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/indices/volatility-s-p-500-chart" id="sb_pair_44336" chart_link="/indices/volatility-s-p-500-chart" data-chart-hash="7c37d4a1a0be84a8c22d66aa74ab153b"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/indices/volatility-s-p-500" title="CBOE Volatility Index (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_indices-volatility-s-p-500\' >S&P 500 VIX</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-44336-last" id="sb_last_44336">20.28</td><td class="chg redFont pid-44336-pc" id="sb_change_44336">-0.95</td><td class="chgPer redFont pid-44336-pcp" id="sb_changepc_44336">-4.47%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenPair-44336" id="sb_clock_44336"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="27" data-pair_id="27" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/indices/uk-100-chart" id="sb_pair_27" chart_link="/indices/uk-100-chart" data-chart-hash="1d2984fb05d560efab6535929b9749b6"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/indices/uk-100" title="FTSE 100 (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_indices-uk-100\' >FTSE 100</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-27-last" id="sb_last_27">7,157.96</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-27-pc" id="sb_change_27">+29.86</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-27-pcp" id="sb_changepc_27">+0.42%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenExch-3" id="sb_clock_27"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer last" pair="172" data-pair_id="172" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/indices/germany-30-chart" id="sb_pair_172" chart_link="/indices/germany-30-chart" data-chart-hash="20b3a6a97fa3088df002fbc8bbcbecbd"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/indices/germany-30" title="DAX (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_indices-germany-30\' >DAX</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-172-last" id="sb_last_172">11,561.78</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-172-pc" id="sb_change_172">+114.27</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-172-pcp" id="sb_changepc_172">+1.00%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenExch-4" id="sb_clock_172"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><table id="QBS_3_inner" data-gae=\'sb_commodities\'  class="displayNone genTbl openTbl quotesSideBlockTbl collapsedTbl"><tbody><tr class="LeftLiContainer Selected" pair="8849" data-pair_id="8849" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/commodities/crude-oil-streaming-chart" id="sb_pair_8849" chart_link="/commodities/crude-oil-streaming-chart" data-chart-hash="c4caa3c525726eb96b6ee67ddfa57896"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/commodities/crude-oil" title="Crude Oil WTI Futures (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_commodities-crude-oil\' >Crude Oil WTI</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-8849-last" id="sb_last_8849">64.97</td><td class="chg redFont pid-8849-pc" id="sb_change_8849">-0.34</td><td class="chgPer redFont pid-8849-pcp" id="sb_changepc_8849">-0.52%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenPair-8849" id="sb_clock_8849"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="8833" data-pair_id="8833" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/commodities/brent-oil-streaming-chart" id="sb_pair_8833" chart_link="/commodities/brent-oil-streaming-chart" data-chart-hash="ecab723bd0c0050290d8fcb3b6ecc974"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/commodities/brent-oil" title="Brent Oil Futures (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_commodities-brent-oil\' >Brent Oil</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-8833-last" id="sb_last_8833">74.50</td><td class="chg redFont pid-8833-pc" id="sb_change_8833">-0.97</td><td class="chgPer redFont pid-8833-pcp" id="sb_changepc_8833">-1.29%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenPair-8833" id="sb_clock_8833"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="8862" data-pair_id="8862" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/commodities/natural-gas-streaming-chart" id="sb_pair_8862" chart_link="/commodities/natural-gas-streaming-chart" data-chart-hash="2862b1367008cea06e03f8cbaf7f40ed"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/commodities/natural-gas" title="Natural Gas Futures (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_commodities-natural-gas\' >Natural Gas</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-8862-last" id="sb_last_8862">3.288</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-8862-pc" id="sb_change_8862">+0.027</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-8862-pcp" id="sb_changepc_8862">+0.83%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenPair-8862" id="sb_clock_8862"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="8830" data-pair_id="8830" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/commodities/gold-streaming-chart" id="sb_pair_8830" chart_link="/commodities/gold-streaming-chart" data-chart-hash="d565a7612f2d571d32033540114babb3"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/commodities/gold" title="Gold Futures (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_commodities-gold\' >Gold</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-8830-last" id="sb_last_8830">1,224.60</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-8830-pc" id="sb_change_8830">+12.30</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-8830-pcp" id="sb_changepc_8830">+1.01%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenPair-8830" id="sb_clock_8830"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="8836" data-pair_id="8836" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/commodities/silver-streaming-chart" id="sb_pair_8836" chart_link="/commodities/silver-streaming-chart" data-chart-hash="c4651fb6e12fa8166f3d0af875aede53"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/commodities/silver" title="Silver Futures (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_commodities-silver\' >Silver</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-8836-last" id="sb_last_8836">14.410</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-8836-pc" id="sb_change_8836">+0.181</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-8836-pcp" id="sb_changepc_8836">+1.27%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenPair-8836" id="sb_clock_8836"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="8831" data-pair_id="8831" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/commodities/copper-streaming-chart" id="sb_pair_8831" chart_link="/commodities/copper-streaming-chart" data-chart-hash="5b7f484afa4efd7da6890d631ce8afc4"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/commodities/copper" title="Copper Futures (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_commodities-copper\' >Copper</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-8831-last" id="sb_last_8831">2.673</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-8831-pc" id="sb_change_8831">+0.009</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-8831-pcp" id="sb_changepc_8831">+0.36%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenPair-8831" id="sb_clock_8831"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="8916" data-pair_id="8916" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/commodities/us-soybeans-streaming-chart" id="sb_pair_8916" chart_link="/commodities/us-soybeans-streaming-chart" data-chart-hash="91b94ebf1783b56de4050ca5a85a2cb6"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/commodities/us-soybeans" title="US Soybeans Futures (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_commodities-us-soybeans\' >US Soybeans</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-8916-last" id="sb_last_8916">849.75</td><td class="chg redFont pid-8916-pc" id="sb_change_8916">-1.25</td><td class="chgPer redFont pid-8916-pcp" id="sb_changepc_8916">-0.15%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenPair-8916" id="sb_clock_8916"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer last" pair="8917" data-pair_id="8917" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/commodities/us-wheat-streaming-chart" id="sb_pair_8917" chart_link="/commodities/us-wheat-streaming-chart" data-chart-hash="052c52690818141ba55d9f690f97cf96"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/commodities/us-wheat" title="US Wheat Futures (CFD)"  data-gae=\'sb_commodities-us-wheat\' >US Wheat</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-8917-last" id="sb_last_8917">503.75</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-8917-pc" id="sb_change_8917">+3.15</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-8917-pcp" id="sb_changepc_8917">+0.63%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenPair-8917" id="sb_clock_8917"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><table id="QBS_6_inner" class="displayNone elpTbl genTbl openTbl quotesSideBlockTbl collapsedTbl"><tbody><tr class="LeftLiContainer Selected" pair="525" data-pair_id="525" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/etfs/spdr-s-p-500-chart" id="sb_pair_525" chart_link="/etfs/spdr-s-p-500-chart" data-chart-hash="27160047578e4f5279e40baecfabc2e8"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/etfs/spdr-s-p-500" title="SPDR S&P 500"  data-gae=\'-spdr-s-p-500\' >SPDR S&P 500</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-525-last" id="sb_last_525">270.63</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-525-pc" id="sb_change_525">+2.86</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-525-pcp" id="sb_changepc_525">+1.07%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-1" id="sb_clock_525"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="38153" data-pair_id="38153" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/etfs/velocityshares-dly-2x-vix-sh.-term-chart" id="sb_pair_38153" chart_link="/etfs/velocityshares-dly-2x-vix-sh.-term-chart" data-chart-hash="4b7fd918dc74923f46a27cdcbc265091"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/etfs/velocityshares-dly-2x-vix-sh.-term" title="VelocityShares Daily 2x VIX Short Term linked to SP 500 VIX Short Fut Exp 4 Dec 2030"  data-gae=\'-velocityshares-dly-2x-vix-sh-term\' >VelocityShares Daily 2x VIX Short Term linked to S</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-38153-last" id="sb_last_38153">48.96</td><td class="chg redFont pid-38153-pc" id="sb_change_38153">-3.44</td><td class="chgPer redFont pid-38153-pcp" id="sb_changepc_38153">-6.56%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-2" id="sb_clock_38153"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="651" data-pair_id="651" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/etfs/powershares-qqqq-chart" id="sb_pair_651" chart_link="/etfs/powershares-qqqq-chart" data-chart-hash="9be355cf0b54c7c47f5b36dccad58064"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/etfs/powershares-qqqq" title="Invesco QQQ Trust Series 1"  data-gae=\'-powershares-qqqq\' >Invesco QQQ Trust Series 1</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-651-last" id="sb_last_651">169.82</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-651-pc" id="sb_change_651">+3.90</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-651-pcp" id="sb_changepc_651">+2.35%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-2" id="sb_clock_651"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="941457" data-pair_id="941457" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/etfs/direxion-daily-jr-gld-mnrs-bull-3x-chart" id="sb_pair_941457" chart_link="/etfs/direxion-daily-jr-gld-mnrs-bull-3x-chart" data-chart-hash="3675100d1876778c2097122d1c7a2e51"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/etfs/direxion-daily-jr-gld-mnrs-bull-3x" title="Direxion Daily Junior Gold Miners Bull 3X Shares"  data-gae=\'-direxion-daily-jr-gld-mnrs-bull-3x\' >Direxion Daily Junior Gold Miners Bull 3X Shares</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-941457-last" id="sb_last_941457">7.17</td><td class="chg redFont pid-941457-pc" id="sb_change_941457">-0.52</td><td class="chgPer redFont pid-941457-pcp" id="sb_changepc_941457">-6.76%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-1" id="sb_clock_941457"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="44987" data-pair_id="44987" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/etfs/velocityshares-3x-inv.-natural-gas-chart" id="sb_pair_44987" chart_link="/etfs/velocityshares-3x-inv.-natural-gas-chart" data-chart-hash="d04234192279a356e3b91342b52beaf7"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/etfs/velocityshares-3x-inv.-natural-gas" title="VelocityShares 3x Inverse Natural Gas linked to S&P GSCI Natural Gas Excess Return"  data-gae=\'-velocityshares-3x-inv-natural-gas\' >VelocityShares 3x Inverse Natural Gas linked to S&</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-44987-last" id="sb_last_44987">14.12</td><td class="chg redFont pid-44987-pc" id="sb_change_44987">-1.07</td><td class="chgPer redFont pid-44987-pcp" id="sb_changepc_44987">-7.04%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-1" id="sb_clock_44987"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="40689" data-pair_id="40689" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/etfs/proshares-ultra-vix-short-term-fut-chart" id="sb_pair_40689" chart_link="/etfs/proshares-ultra-vix-short-term-fut-chart" data-chart-hash="c825c4d67ba622464a82b3e56cbf890b"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/etfs/proshares-ultra-vix-short-term-fut" title="ProShares Ultra VIX Short-Term Futures"  data-gae=\'-proshares-ultra-vix-short-term-fut\' >ProShares Ultra VIX Short-Term Futures</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-40689-last" id="sb_last_40689">60.2300</td><td class="chg redFont pid-40689-pc" id="sb_change_40689">-3.0900</td><td class="chgPer redFont pid-40689-pcp" id="sb_changepc_40689">-4.88%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-1" id="sb_clock_40689"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="45494" data-pair_id="45494" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/etfs/proshares-trust-ultrapro-qqq-chart" id="sb_pair_45494" chart_link="/etfs/proshares-trust-ultrapro-qqq-chart" data-chart-hash="b09ca3911c166f3aa2c765622f63f205"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/etfs/proshares-trust-ultrapro-qqq" title="ProShares UltraPro QQQ"  data-gae=\'-proshares-trust-ultrapro-qqq\' >ProShares UltraPro QQQ</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-45494-last" id="sb_last_45494">52.21</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-45494-pc" id="sb_change_45494">+3.30</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-45494-pcp" id="sb_changepc_45494">+6.75%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-2" id="sb_clock_45494"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer last" pair="40681" data-pair_id="40681" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/etfs/market-vectors-gold-miners-chart" id="sb_pair_40681" chart_link="/etfs/market-vectors-gold-miners-chart" data-chart-hash="b82e6987b1a059bbf29bf51f8b505812"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/etfs/market-vectors-gold-miners" title="VanEck Vectors Gold Miners"  data-gae=\'-market-vectors-gold-miners\' >VanEck Vectors Gold Miners</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-40681-last" id="sb_last_40681">18.9300</td><td class="chg redFont pid-40681-pc" id="sb_change_40681">-0.2200</td><td class="chgPer redFont pid-40681-pcp" id="sb_changepc_40681">-1.15%</td><td class="icon"><span class="redClockIcon isOpenExch-1" id="sb_clock_40681"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><table id="QBS_7_inner" class="displayNone genTbl openTbl quotesSideBlockTbl collapsedTbl"><tbody><tr class="LeftLiContainer Selected" pair="945629" data-pair_id="945629" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/crypto/bitcoin/btc-usd-chart" id="sb_pair_945629" chart_link="/crypto/bitcoin/btc-usd-chart" data-chart-hash="980ef075ac6b87dd9f940f398b9bcbf8"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/crypto/bitcoin/btc-usd" title="BTC/USD - Bitcoin US Dollar"  data-gae=\'-btc-usd\' >BTC/USD</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-945629-last" id="sb_last_945629">6,364.5</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-945629-pc" id="sb_change_945629">+29.0</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-945629-pcp" id="sb_changepc_945629">+0.46%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenExch-1014" id="sb_clock_945629"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="997650" data-pair_id="997650" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/crypto/ethereum/eth-usd-chart" id="sb_pair_997650" chart_link="/crypto/ethereum/eth-usd-chart" data-chart-hash="f1d1f100714c475a9df5f6ee74338791"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/crypto/ethereum/eth-usd" title="ETH/USD - Ethereum US Dollar"  data-gae=\'-eth-usd\' >ETH/USD</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-997650-last" id="sb_last_997650">198.43</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-997650-pc" id="sb_change_997650">+1.28</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-997650-pcp" id="sb_changepc_997650">+0.65%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenExch-1014" id="sb_clock_997650"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="1031333" data-pair_id="1031333" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/crypto/bitcoin-cash/bch-usd-chart" id="sb_pair_1031333" chart_link="/crypto/bitcoin-cash/bch-usd-chart" data-chart-hash="9b37b549c305bd9c6240e4fc8f477f5d"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/crypto/bitcoin-cash/bch-usd" title="BCH/USD - Bitcoin Cash US Dollar"  data-gae=\'-bch-usd\' >BCH/USD</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-1031333-last" id="sb_last_1031333">425.13</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-1031333-pc" id="sb_change_1031333">+4.66</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-1031333-pcp" id="sb_changepc_1031333">+1.11%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenExch-1014" id="sb_clock_1031333"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="1010782" data-pair_id="1010782" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/crypto/ripple/xrp-usd-chart" id="sb_pair_1010782" chart_link="/crypto/ripple/xrp-usd-chart" data-chart-hash="3a1c1287203a98d5ff2e5514d3b2126a"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/crypto/ripple/xrp-usd" title="XRP/USD - XRP US Dollar"  data-gae=\'-xrp-usd\' >XRP/USD</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-1010782-last" id="sb_last_1010782">0.45330</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-1010782-pc" id="sb_change_1010782">+0.00745</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-1010782-pcp" id="sb_changepc_1010782">+1.67%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenExch-1015" id="sb_clock_1010782"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="1024821" data-pair_id="1024821" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/crypto/eos/eos-usd-chart" id="sb_pair_1024821" chart_link="/crypto/eos/eos-usd-chart" data-chart-hash="739f1398fc0dcac0e57b1d7214c2f72a"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/crypto/eos/eos-usd" title="EOS/USD - EOS US Dollar"  data-gae=\'-eos-usd\' >EOS/USD</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-1024821-last" id="sb_last_1024821">5.2444</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-1024821-pc" id="sb_change_1024821">+0.1014</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-1024821-pcp" id="sb_changepc_1024821">+1.97%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenExch-1014" id="sb_clock_1024821"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="1010798" data-pair_id="1010798" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/crypto/litecoin/ltc-usd-chart" id="sb_pair_1010798" chart_link="/crypto/litecoin/ltc-usd-chart" data-chart-hash="898e0191a596d14e3ac23c545ba0aa90"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/crypto/litecoin/ltc-usd" title="LTC/USD - Litecoin US Dollar"  data-gae=\'-ltc-usd\' >LTC/USD</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-1010798-last" id="sb_last_1010798">49.620</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-1010798-pc" id="sb_change_1010798">+0.810</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-1010798-pcp" id="sb_changepc_1010798">+1.66%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenExch-1016" id="sb_clock_1010798"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer" pair="1055297" data-pair_id="1055297" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/crypto/cardano/ada-usd-chart" id="sb_pair_1055297" chart_link="/crypto/cardano/ada-usd-chart" data-chart-hash="06a57295187de7e8f2e05ebef6698f58"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/crypto/cardano/ada-usd" title="ADA/USD - Cardano US Dollar"  data-gae=\'-ada-usd\' >ADA/USD</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-1055297-last" id="sb_last_1055297">0.070256</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-1055297-pc" id="sb_change_1055297">+0.001058</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-1055297-pcp" id="sb_changepc_1055297">+1.53%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenPair-1055297" id="sb_clock_1055297"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr class="LeftLiContainer last" pair="1036958" data-pair_id="1036958" data-external="sbcharts.investing.com" data-pair_url="/crypto/stellar/xlm-usd-chart" id="sb_pair_1036958" chart_link="/crypto/stellar/xlm-usd-chart" data-chart-hash="f2fab17560e8a26b67b8c9f4973f9656"><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td><td class="left bold first noWrap"><a href="/crypto/stellar/xlm-usd" title="XLM/USD - Stellar Lumens US Dollar"  data-gae=\'-xlm-usd\' >XLM/USD</a></td><td class="lastNum pid-1036958-last" id="sb_last_1036958">0.22565</td><td class="chg greenFont pid-1036958-pc" id="sb_change_1036958">+0.00275</td><td class="chgPer greenFont pid-1036958-pcp" id="sb_changepc_1036958">+1.23%</td><td class="icon"><span class="greenClockIcon isOpenExch-1015" id="sb_clock_1036958"></span></td><td class="sideColumn">&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div></div> <!-- /sideBanner --><div class="tradeNowRightColumn"></div><div class="clear " id="ad1"><div id=\'div-gpt-ad-1370187203350-sb1\' style=\'margin-top:18px;\' ></div></div> <!-- /sideBanner --><div class="clear sideColumnBox" id="Most_Popular_News" data-gae=\'mostpop\' >    <div class="sideColumnBoxTitle">Most Popular Articles</div>\n    <ul class="js-tab-box-menu tabsBoxSubMenu " id="mostPopularTabsTop" >\n            <li id=MP_news  class="first selected" data-value=news><a href="javascript:void(0);">News</a></li>\n            <li 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Code Structure:

Now that we can make requests to the sites page, we should extract our data form the page code we are getting:

  • FOR each Page IN the News Category, DO:
    • FOR each Article IN the page, DO:
      • Get_Details: title, link, date, source, first paragraphe
        • Write the Details Of a page to CSV File
 

Getting the details of a single Article:

Our 1st block of operations, would be to take a single Article item from the list and extract its relevant informations as a return values:

In [6]:
def get_details(single_article):
    
    # A title is in <a></a> with the 'class' attribute set to: title
    title = single_article.find('a',{'class':'title'})

    # A safeguard against some empty articles in the deeper pages of the site
    if title == None:
        #print('Empty Article')
        return None
    
    # the link to an article is the Href attribute
    link = title['href']
    
    # A safeguarde against embedded Advertisment articles
    if (('/news/'and category_name) not in link):
        #print('Ad Article found')
        return None       
        
    title = title.text
    
    # The first Paragraph is in <p></p>
    first_p = single_article.find('p').text
    
    # the Source is in <span></span>, with Class == articleDetails
    source_tag = single_article.find_all('span',{'class':'articleDetails'})
    source = str(source_tag[0].span.text)
    
    #date is also in <span></span> withe the Class == date
    date = single_article.find('span',{'class':'date'}).text
    
    return title, link, first_p, source, date  
 

Getting the details of a single Page: (list of Articles)

In the 2nd block, we inspect the Page Url, finds the List of Articles to iterate over, and calls the first function (above) at each iteration, appending the calling results into a list of dictionaries :

In [7]:
def single_page(Url_page,page_id = 1):

    news_list = []

    #Making the Http request
    page = request_with_check(Url_page)
    
    #Calling the Html.parser to start extracting our data
    html_soup = BeautifulSoup(page.text, 'html.parser')
    
    # The Articles Class
    articles = html_soup.find('div',{'class':'largeTitle'})
    
    # The single Articles List
    articleItems = articles.find_all('article' ,{'class':'articleItem'})

    # Looping, for each single Article
    for article in articleItems:
        if get_details(article) == None:
            continue
        
        title, link, first_p, source_tag, date = get_details(article)
        news_list.append({'id_page':page_id,
                          'title':title,   
                          'date':date,
                          'link': link,
                          'source':source_tag,
                          'first_p':first_p})

    return news_list
 

Saving to CSV:

The 3rd Block is saving the resulting news dictionary in a CSV file, we are checking if the file exists (and we would append to it), or not (and we would create it as new file) (returned by the second function

In [8]:
def dict_to_csv (filename,news_dict):
    
    #Setting the Dataframe headers
    fields = news_dict[0]
    fields = list(fields.keys())
    
    #Checking if the file already exists, if Exists we woulb pe appending, if Not we create it
    has_header = False
    if os.path.isfile(filename):
        with open(filename, 'r') as csvfile:
            sniffer = csv.Sniffer()
            has_header = sniffer.has_header(csvfile.read(2048))
    
    with open(filename, 'a',errors = 'ignore', encoding= 'utf-8') as csvfile:
        writer = csv.DictWriter(csvfile, fieldnames=fields)
        if(has_header == False):
            writer.writeheader()  
        for row in range(len(news_dict)):
            item = news_dict[row]
            writer.writerow(item)
 

Looping over the Pages of the Category: (the General function)

Finally the general function, where we iterate over the number of pages, and apply the blocks defined above for each page of news.

Note: at each iteration, i.e: parsing a new page, we are forcing a 10 Seconds Pause of the scrapper, so as not to overuse our access to the site

In [9]:
def parsing_category_pages(category_name,base_url,number_pages):
    start_time = time.time()
    
    #getting the start page
    page = request_with_check(base_url)

    #Calling the Html Parser
    html_soup = BeautifulSoup(page.text, 'html.parser')
    
    #Finding the Laste page
    last_page = int(html_soup.findAll(class_='pagination')[-1].text)

    if number_pages > last_page:
        number_pages = last_page

    #Looping over the specified nupber of Pages:
    for p in range(1,number_pages,1):
        category_page = base_url+'/'+str(p)
        print('Parsing: ',category_page)
        page_news = single_page(category_page,p)
        
        #Saving to a CSV
        dict_to_csv(category_name+'.csv',page_news)
        
        #Time sleep
        time.sleep(10)
    
    print("--- %s seconds ---" % (time.time() - start_time))
    return True
 

Testing:

In [11]:
URL = 'https://www.investing.com/news/'
category_name = 'commodities-news'
base_url = URL+category_name
parsing_category_pages ('commodities-news',base_url,number_pages=5)
 
Parsing:  https://www.investing.com/news/commodities-news/1
Parsing:  https://www.investing.com/news/commodities-news/2
Parsing:  https://www.investing.com/news/commodities-news/3
Parsing:  https://www.investing.com/news/commodities-news/4
--- 57.46652936935425 seconds ---
Out[11]:
True
 

Checking the resulting dataset:

In [12]:
data = pd.read_csv('commodities-news.csv')
data.head(100)
Out[12]:
  id_page title date link source first_p
0 1 Democrats Regaining House Seen Raising Odds of... - 1 hour ago /news/commodities-news/democrats-regaining-hou... By Bloomberg (Bloomberg) -- If the Democrats take over the ...
1 1 Gold Prices Advance as Dollar Softens - 5 hours ago /news/commodities-news/gold-prices-advance-as-... By Investing.com Investing.com - Gold prices advanced on Thursd...
2 1 Oil slips on signs of rising supplies, economi... - 5 hours ago /news/commodities-news/oil-prices-fall-on-sign... By Reuters BEIJING (Reuters) - Oil prices fell on Thursd...
3 1 Oil Prices Slip Amidst U.S. Stock Build - 6 hours ago /news/commodities-news/oil-prices-slip-amidst-... By Investing.com Investing.com - Oil prices edged down on Thurs...
4 1 Trump says oil supply elsewhere sufficient to ... - 12 hours ago /news/commodities-news/trump-says-oil-supply-e... By Reuters WASHINGTON (Reuters) - U.S. President Donald ...
5 1 Oil Down 11% In October, Biggest Loss in Over ... - 15 hours ago /news/commodities-news/oil-selloff-pauses-on-w... By Investing.com Investing.com - Oil prices in October posted t...
6 1 Gold Limps to a 2% October Gain, Still Largest... - 15 hours ago /news/commodities-news/gold-end-october-up-2-b... By Investing.com Investing.com - More profit-taking on gold’s r...
7 1 U.S. Passes Russia -- Briefly -- to Become Top... - 17 hours ago /news/commodities-news/us-passes-russia--brief... By Bloomberg (Bloomberg) -- The U.S. surpassed Russia in Au...
8 1 OPEC oil output rises to highest since 2016 de... - 20 hours ago /news/commodities-news/opec-oil-output-rises-t... By Reuters By Alex Lawler LONDON (Reuters) - OPEC has bo...
9 1 U.S. Crude Oil Inventories Rose by 3.22M Barre... - 20 hours ago /news/commodities-news/us-crude-oil-inventorie... By Investing.com Investing.com - U.S. crude oil inventories ros...
10 1 Iran sanctions seen keeping oil above $75, but... - 23 hours ago /news/commodities-news/iran-sanctions-seen-kee... By Reuters By Eileen Soreng (Reuters) - Oil is likely to...
11 2 Oil rises one percent ahead of U.S. sanctions ... - Oct 31, 2018 /news/commodities-news/oil-prices-rise-for-fir... By Reuters By Christopher Johnson LONDON (Reuters) - Oil...
12 3 Gold Prices Fall on Stronger Dollar; Hovers Ne... - Oct 31, 2018 /news/commodities-news/gold-prices-fall-on-str... By Investing.com Investing.com - Gold prices slid to almost two...
13 3 Oil Prices Bounce Back Despite Hints of Output... - Oct 30, 2018 /news/commodities-news/oil-prices-bounce-back-... By Investing.com Investing.com – Oil prices picked up on Wednes...
14 3 Oil Hits 2-1/2-Month Low on 'High Price' Cauti... - Oct 30, 2018 /news/commodities-news/oil-extends-losses-as-w... By Investing.com Investing.com - The International Energy Agenc...
15 3 Gold Dips as Dollar Flexes Muscle - Oct 30, 2018 /news/commodities-news/gold-dips-as-dollar-fle... By Investing.com Investing.com - The dollar’s march higher is c...
16 4 Gold Prices Fall as Trade War Tensions Boost S... - Oct 30, 2018 /news/commodities-news/gold-prices-fall-as-tra... By Investing.com Investing.com - Gold prices fell on Tuesday as...
17 4 Oil Prices Slide Extending Sharp October Decline - Oct 30, 2018 /news/commodities-news/oil-prices-slide-extend... By Investing.com Investing.com - Oil prices continued to slide ...
18 4 Oil prices fall on rising supply, trade tensions - Oct 30, 2018 /news/commodities-news/oil-prices-fall-on-risi... By Reuters By Christopher Johnson LONDON (Reuters) - Oil...
 

Future Improvements:

  • Adding a 'start_page' and 'stop_page' parameters,
  • Adding a Resume_Block for Scrapping part by part,
  • Automating the scrapping of All categories of news
  • Automating the scrapping to access the full text of the Articles
 

Up next: Starting our NLP pipline for this dataset

(Coming Soon .............. )

 

Ressources:

 

©

By: Elamraoui Sohayb, Supervision of: Sadiq Abdelalim,Phd. Master 'Big Data & Cloud Computing', Ibn Tofail University